In addition, one further tool was given to the Church by the Prophet Joseph Smith. Lord.” “I will gladly go?” “OK, I will [grudgingly] go?” or “I get to go! One level was for ordinary listeners, who might be edified by the publicly accessible, straightforward narrative value of the story; the other was only for those with eyes to see and ears to hear (Matthew 13:11, 16),[5] and to them Jesus may frequently have unfolded or discussed his deeper meanings in private conversations (as he did in Matthew 13:19–23, 36–43; 19:10–11). No wonder even that first son might need to think things over a bit. The theme of the parable is grace toward the prodigal. This word, along with the Father’s command, “go down” (hypage),[31] may call to mind the condescension or incarnation of Jesus leaving his Father’s presence. The domain of this social approach is the “ought,” and it adds to the discussion the implications of cultural mores and expectations. See John W. Welch, “The Calling of a Prophet,” in The Book of Mormon: First Nephi, the Doctrinal Foundation, ed. Much less frequently, this word refers to repentance (Proverbs 5:11). The parable of the prodigal son; sometimes termed “the lost son” as narrated by Jesus himself (Luke 15: 11-32); is one that shows God's incomprehensible mercy and love. a MATT. by David Harding. He went to the first and said, ‘Son, go and work today in the vineyard.’ 29 “‘I will not,’ he answered, but later he changed his mind and went. Provo, UT 84602 This act sets the Sanhedrin on edge and ramps up the tension between Jesus and the religious establishment. [23] Herbert Weir Smyth, Greek Grammar (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1963), section 1121. [13] Commentators often assert that this parable has been taken out of its original context in some Galilean village setting and inserted here, where it does not really belong. Let's take a look at 3 key points from this story of the Bible. When they were unwilling to respond, Jesus used this as an opportunity to address the fundamental issue of authority. The moral or ethical. These heavenly, primeval overtones are a bit more evident in the Greek text of Matthew than in the Latin Vulgate or in the English of the King James Version or other translations. [5] Jesus may have had several reasons for veiling his meanings, all of which could have been operating on the occasion of Matthew 21. Which of the two did what his father wanted?" This animated Bible story for kids is based on Matthew 21:28-32. (In the Court of the Temple. Abraham had two sons, Ishmael and Isaac (see Genesis 16 and 21), one the son of a slave born after the flesh, the other born of the freewoman by everlasting promise, which Paul saw as an allegory (see Galatians 4:22–26). These words were used by Jesus himself in referring to his own going away or departure, as a euphemism for his impending death and descent into the spirit prison: “Then said the Jews, Will he kill himself? Matt. [24] There is no grammatical doubt as to the referent of the possessive tou: it obviously refers to the father of the son, and if the willing son represents Jesus in this parable, then his father is, by extension, “the Father,” his Father in Heaven. 2 (1999): 50–115, and also “Parable of the Good Samaritan,” Ensign, February 2007, 40–47, and Liahona, February 2007, 26–33. (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1972), 80–81. The second son later chooses not … [21] On the importance of the two questions in Matthew 21:23 and 25 for the interpretation of this parable, see Wesley G. Olmstead, Matthew’s Trilogy of Parables: The Nation, the Nations and the Reader in Matthew 21:28–22:14 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003), 99, 108. Of course it is the first son. ... ACTIVITY: The Parable Of The Two Sons Materials needed: three 2" x 12" strips of tan construction paper, crayons, markers, tape. The complete lesson plan below has everything you need to prepare for your Bible teaching. There is deeper meaning behind the parable of the prodigal son in the Bible outside of the lessons from the single son. With a little further reflection, they may also have perceived that Jesus had spoken of himself as the first son in the immediately preceding parable of the willing and unwilling two sons. But when he went on to tell the ensuing parable of the two sons, he answered in effect their second question: “Who gave thee this authority?” As mentioned above, Joseph Smith taught that readers should pay close attention to “the question which drew out the answer.”[20] In this case, that question was the source of Jesus’ authority, and ultimately that is the question the parable particularly answers.[21]. He answered and said, I will not: but afterward he repented, and went. [41] For example, Cain began as “a man from the Lord” (Genesis 4:1), but killed Abel (Genesis 4:10) and was cast out. The second son says “yes,” but does not do what he was asked. When had they said they would follow John but then did not do so? But the idea that the first son repented of some sin (an idea which is implicit in paenitentia, the Latin word used at this point in the Vulgate) is actually not necessarily implied in the little parable. [18] For example, Joachim Jeremias, The Parables of Jesus, 2nd ed. To summarize, the youngest of the two sons demands his share of his father’s estate which the father gives him. In Acts 2:23, Peter’s text assumes that his audience on the day of Pentecost was familiar with the idea of God’s primordial council (boulēi) and foreknowledge (prognōsei) that sent Jesus to his fate. One of Jesus’ most famous parables is found in Luke 15:11-32. In hearing that parable, the chief priests and the Pharisees “perceived that [Jesus] spake of them” and their desire to kill him (21:45). But ultimately and anagogically, the willingness of the first son to submit to the Father’s will is an understandable and appropriate reaction—just as the First Son contemplated shouldering his daunting assignment and aligned his own will with that of the Father. There was a man who had two sons. Luke 15:1-2). [4] Kurt Erlemann, “Allegorie, Allegorese, Allegorisierung,” in Zimmerman and Kern, Hermeneutik der Gleichnisse Jesu, 482–93. At the same time, there was another son. 202), Clement of Alexandria (death c. AD 215), and onwards. [38] Recalling to mind that not everyone who simply says, “Lord, Lord [kurie, kurie] shall enter into the kingdom of heaven” (Matthew 7:21). The most widely supported Greek texts literally read as follows: “A man had two sons, and going to the first he said, ‘Go down this day to work in the vineyard.’ He answered, ‘Not as I will,’ but then reconciling himself to the task he went. Indeed, it always helps to read the parables of Jesus not only historically and practically but also symbolically and sublimely. . Website by The Website Branch New York, "Lord, Increase Our Faith" (We Cannot Win Without You), Seven Things You Should Know About Destiny Helpers, Prayer Points for Light to Shine in Your Situation, Why You Should Respect The Anointing on A Man or Woman of God, Prayer Points to Arrest the Agenda of the Enemy. 30. The literal, factual, historical, or cultural. In the Septuagint, God does not bring Israel through the land of Canaan so that they will not change their minds (metamelēsēi, Exodus 13:17; but here the KJV reads “repent”). The ruler gave each servant talents according to his abilities. The two sons were commanded by the Father to go down “this day” to do what the Father wanted to have done at the time when that work was needed below. The father also goes to his second son and tells him the same thing, to which the son says, 'I go, sir,' but then he did not go. 21:28-32. Was it “from heaven, or of men?” (21:25). The moral lesson of the Two Brothers is that blood is thicker than water. Brigham Young University Here one finds a strong reading of this text, conceptually engaging all of its elements. And they will go in before those who say yes, but don’t obey God, like the second son. Indeed, most potently, this parable takes the question of authority into divine realms. To carry out their assignment with authority they need to be in tune with the will of the one who has sent them. In most manuscripts, at the end of the story in verse 31, he is called “the first” (ho prōtos). John W. Welch was the Robert K. Thomas Professor of Law at Brigham Young University, editor in chief of BYU Studies Quarterly, and author of books and articles including The Sermon on the Mount in the Light of the Temple (Burlington. Jesus began by saying: There was once a man who had two sons. In a small minority of manuscripts, another version of this parable likewise has the father approach the ultimately willing son first, but in the end he is called not “the first” but “the last” or “the least” (ho eschatos). [33] Louw and Nida, Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament, domains 25.270 (p. 318); 31.59 (p. 373). [15] See Peter Balla, The Child-Parent Relationship in the New Testament and Its Environment (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 2003), 126. the words that I speak unto you I speak not of myself: but [of] the Father” (John 14:10). The master of the vineyard was setting out to travel foreign lands for a number of years. A man had two sons, and he came to the first and said, ‘Son, go work today in the vineyard.’. From the words of this story, all one knows is that this man was a father of two sons, that he had a vineyard or orchard (ampelōn, the word may mean either), and that he needed someone to go down to work immediately in that vineyard. This is the first word he says. Lord.”[37] All of these are possibilities. Jesus’ parable told the priests that they'd claimed to accept the message from God but they'd failed to live up to it by being obedient. But it seems to me that more must be involved here. The two sons are referred to as the father’s tekna, his own immediate offspring (not slaves or servants); although referred to with this term of endearment, which is often used in speaking of young children, these sons[14] must be old enough and mature enough to do this work. Jesus, however, simply “answered like unto the Son of Man: Here am I, send me” (Abraham 3:27), adding, “Father, thy will be done” (Moses 4:2; emphasis added). This view has been embraced by several commentators[18] because at the end of verse 31 Jesus indicted his challengers, saying that the publicans and harlots would enter the kingdom of God before they would because the publicans and harlots believed John the Baptist but the chief priests and elders did not. It's amid this turmoil that Jesus offers the little-known Parable of the Two Sons. But this form of the parable is “inferior” to the first. This made the Pharisaical teachers of religious law complain that Jesus was associating with such despicable people – even eating with them.” Just as the two boys in my story, one son answered, "No," but went and worked. Amplifying and extending these two levels of reading, Christian interpreters, especially in the Middle Ages, saw in all biblical texts four levels of meaning: 1. Isaac had two sons, Jacob and Esau; the one wrestled with God and received an eternal blessing, and the other sold his birthright. This invitation came, not as a polite request, but as an imperative, literally, “go [age] down [hyp-]” (hypage, Matthew 21:28; the father said the same to the second son in 21:30). Lesson - The Parable Of The Two Sons VERSES: Matthew 21:28-32 MEMORY VERSE: Matthew 21:31 "Which of the two did the will of his father? What is the difference between a moral and a lesson? 3. Moreover, strong readings make use of all the elements, not just a few selected elements, in the text or work being interpreted. . [3] John W. Welch, “The Good Samaritan: A Type and Shadow of the Plan of Salvation,” BYU Studies 38, no. (New York: United Bible Societies, 1988), domain 41.52 (p. 510). Consider the following: The two sons were asked by their father. However, this parable is introduced by the question, “But what think ye?” (ti de hymin dokei, “but how then would it seem to you?”) which is a common introductory question used in various forms (such as ti oun, “what then?” or ti de, “but what about?”) in the dialogues of Plato, where Socrates uses this expression to continue a line of questioning or to press forward with a discussion, as for example, ti soi dokei, “how does it seem to you?” in Phaedo 96e5, John Burnet, ed., Platonis Opera (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1967). The son answers, 'I will not,' but he later changes his mind and goes to work in the vineyard. The chief priests and the elders come to Jesus and ask him, "By what authority are you doing these things? According to the King James Version, Jesus said: “But what think ye? [16] Charles H. Talbert, Matthew (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 2010), 251. There he was accosted by the chief priests and the elders of the people, who challenged him, demanding to know, “By what authority doest thou these things?” and “Who gave thee this authority?” (21:23). This was Jesus’ first teaching in the temple after his triumphal entry, and this short parable effectively took this crucial question of authority all the way back to fundamental principles, not only to the current unwillingness (or inability) of the chief priests to answer the question about the source of John’s authority but also beyond that to things pertaining to the foundation of the world relevant to the source of Jesus’ and all true authority. 3–4 (1973), 76–98, reprinted in The Collected Works of Hugh Nibley, 1:171–214 (see p. 174); see generally E. Theodore Mullen Jr., The Divine Council in Canaanite and Early Hebrew Literature (Chico, CA: Scholars, 1980). Deeply valuable symbolism is thoroughly embedded in two of Jesus’ parables, both of which begin, “A certain man had two sons.” The more famous of these two is commonly called parable of the prodigal son, found in Luke 15. And without a further point of reference in connection with the dual story, the chief priests and elders would well have been left puzzling when they had not done what they had specifically said they would do? J. Spencer Fluhman and Brent L. Top (Provo, UT: Religious Studies Center; Salt Lake City: 2016), 97–116. Or this reading may simply be “nonsensical.” Metzger, Textual Commentary, 55. I disagree that “this is little more than an expanded proverb” employed as a “parable of judgment.”[16]. He had two sons whom he loved more than anything else. If the first son is identifiable as Jesus, the second son in this parable can be understood as Lucifer, his brother. The phrase “I shall not” would have been the correct translation of expression of future intent in the first person, whereas “I will not” expressed desire “as far as one has the power” (Fowler). [11] This type of thinking has a parallel in the four progressively better types of seeds in the parable of the sower, or the four types of learners who go to study Torah. An attentive reader can see in Jesus’ answer a number of elevated doctrinal points about the nature of authority received from God in general and about Jesus’ authority in specific. For Latter-day Saints, this calls to mind the familiar scene in the Council in Heaven in which Jesus was given his commission and authority from the Father. In addition, strong readings must not stretch the symbolism in a text so far as to thin out its texture. Timing was important for the coming of Christ. With numerous possible applications to choose from, readers must selectively decide how to interpret what they see in a parable. From these straightforward facts, the message speaks in everyday terms: In such a case, Galilean society would have expected sons to drop whatever they were planning to do that day and go and help their dear, perhaps somewhat elderly, father in his time of need. [14] The male gender of these children becomes clear in the male adjectives, “the first” and “the other.”. [26] Liddell, Scott, Jones, Greek-English Lexicon, 1875. [2] But at the same time, some readings will always be stronger than others. September 21, 2020 by Kristin Schmidt. Immediately after Jesus’ triumphal entry into Jerusalem, he went straight to the temple, knocked over the tables of the overreaching merchants and money changers, miraculously healed the blind and the lame, and was heralded by children (21:12–16). [39] While not exactly the same as in this parable, certain similarities are unmistakable. By asking these questions, they were looking for a way to discredit Him. Going to the other, he [the Father] said the same. [29] Doing the Father’s will (thelēma—which is the noun cognate to the verb thelō) is a central theme in the Gospel of Matthew leading up to Christ’s teaching in this parable and immediately beyond (see Matthew 6:10; 7:21; 12:50; 18:14; 26:42). UT: Ashgate, 2009), The Legal Cases in the Book of Mormon (Provo, UT: FARMS, 2007), and “The Good Samaritan: A Type and Shadow of the Plan of Salvation” (1999) when this was written. IN REPLY TO THE QUESTIONS AS TO HIS AUTHORITY, JESUS GIVES THE THIRD GREAT GROUP OF PARABLES. 801-422-6975, The Setting of the Parable of the Willing and Unwilling Two Sons. Lessons for the church about the parable of the two sons 1. He was eager at first, but in the end he would not serve his father. The Parable of the Two Sons. The authority of Jesus was traceable back to “the beginning” (John 1:1); his judgment was just because he sought “the will of the Father” who had sent him (John 5:30). This also is the first word in the parables of the good Samaritan (Luke 10:30) and the prodigal son (Luke 15:11). Viewed objectively or ethically, a son might need to change his mind and decide to obey his father’s command. And he answered, ‘I go, sir,’ but did not go. PARABLE OF THE TWO SONS. Indeed, the first son initially answered the Father’s request by saying, “Ou thelō,” which the KJV translates as “I will not” (emphasis added). [40] They may have known of the pattern of authoritative callings and the heavenly council from several passages, including 1 Kings 22:19–23; Psalms 82:1; 110:3; Isaiah 9:5 LXX; Jeremiah 23:18; Daniel 7:9–14; Amos 3:7; 1 Enoch 12:3–4. Jesus asks His audience to answer which of the two sons does the will of the father in the parable. 2. Those reasons include avoiding controversy, protecting himself from accusation, protecting the sacredness of certain revelations, softening the impact of his teachings, and allowing his listeners to discover the meaning of his messages as they might be ready to internalize and accept their implications and applications. The first son says “no,” but does the father’s will. In Gethsemane, as the Savior reconciled and submitted himself to the will of the Father, he said, “not my will [mē to thelēma mou] but thine, be done” (Luke 22:42). In the Parable of the Two Sons, the leaders of Israel are the second son who claimed obedience, but did not do the will of the father. With the foregoing in mind, I suggest that readers might most meaningfully look at this parable through a spiritual or anagogical lens. In so doing, this story calls to mind events in the Council in Heaven, where a Father indeed had two very different sons and where Jesus received his commission and authority from the Father. At the literal, factual level, this is a story of a man. We are the prodigal son. And at the level of moral persuasion, this parable serves very well in this regard. At the broader ethical level, this parable gives helpful domestic guidance to all sons and daughters on how they ought to behave. The Parable Of Two Sons … . Metzger, Textual Commentary, 56. In the parable of the Vineyard owner’s Two Sons the key idea is changing your mind. Moreover, the second and only other word (kurie) in his reply to his father a bit stiffly calls his own father “Lord,” which may well convey an underlying sentiment that for that son this matter was not primarily about close personal love or filial devotion. The parable begins in verse 11 (ESV): And He (Jesus) said, “There was a man who had two sons.” These two sons personify the audiences to whom Jesus spoke (cf. He refuses, … See Abot 5:15, discussed in Brad H. Young, The Parables: Jewish Tradition and Christian Interpretation (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 1998), 265 (quick to learn, quick to forget; slow to learn, slow to forget; slow to learn, quick to forget; quick to learn, slow to forget). 21:29 “And he answered, ‘I will not’; but afterward he regretted it and went. Because of this symbolic element, it is often suggested that this parable should be read nationally, as a statement about God’s two ethnic sons, so to speak, the Israelites and the Gentiles: one of the sons (Israel) said (and covenanted) that he would do what God wanted but then did not, while the other (the Gentiles, or the publicans and the harlots) said he would not go, but reconsidered and did go. Parable of Two Sons (Matthew 21:23-32) Sunday School Lesson for Kids. Indeed, Joseph Smith taught that the hidden meanings of all the parables were “plainly elucidated” by Jesus to his disciples. The Parable of the Two Sons. [38] For whatever reason, that son did not go. [1] Robert L. Millet and James C. Christensen, Parables and Other Teaching Stories (Salt Lake City: Shadow Mountain, 1999), 7. It Is A Thought Provoking Parable That Teaches The Meaning Of True Obedience and What It Means To Do God’s Will. A man had two sons. Perhaps this son knew when he was asked to go down that there were or would be wicked tenants in the vineyard who had or would have already killed the two sets of servants sent by the landowner-father, and now in desperation the father needed a son to send. People who do not know the Lord are believing and turning from the … The domain of this comparative approach is typically the “horizontal,” and it thrives on comparative and analogical reasoning. In either case, it is interesting to note that the Father was apparently open to sending either (or perhaps, in some way, both), if they would be willing to be his agents and to do his will within the scope of the authority and assignment given to them. And he answering said, ‘I, Lord!’ And he did not go.”[27] The differences between this rendition of the Greek and the usual English translations of this text—which is clearly much more than a fable—may be explicated as follows: In the Greek, it is more evident that Jesus is casting himself as the first of these two sons. [32] Johannes P. Louw and Eugene A. Nida, eds., Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament Based on Semantic Domains, 2nd ed. And he went to the first and said, ‘Son, go and work in the vineyard today.’ 29 And he answered, ‘I will not,’ but afterward he changed his mind and went. The more one can see the interlacing and reinforcing textures of symbolism at work in a parable, a painting, or any other work of meaningful communication, the stronger the reading. Whether or not the chief priests and elders had any knowledge from traditional sources about the heavenly council in which the eternal plan was established from the foundation of the world,[40] that primal event would have been well known to the Savior and perhaps to his disciples and others of his contemporaries. In Jesus' parable of the two sons, the father asked both sons to go and work in his vineyard. “I have given unto them the words which thou gavest me” (John 17:8). This story “expects that listeners should pronounce judgment upon the son who did not obey,” for children in this world were “expected to honour [their] parents.”[15] One son eventually does this; the other does not. These two responses typify the contrast between the course of self-interested unrighteousness and the way of submissive righteousness in answering a call from God. See also Psalm 106:45; Jeremiah 20:16; Ezekiel 14:22. The Gospel for this Sunday, as we saw, speaks of two sons, but behind them, in a mysterious way, is a third son. As always, true authority can only be maintained by virtue of humility, long-suffering, kindness, and love unfeigned, exercised for the glory and honor of the Father, as exemplified by his First and eternally willing Son. [2] See, generally, Ruben Zimmermann and Gabi Kern, eds., Hermeneutik der Gleichnisse Jesu (Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2008); Stefan Nordgaard Svendsen, Allegory Transformed: The Appropriation of Philonic Hermeneutics in the Letter of the Hebrews (Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2009). [6] Joseph Smith, “To the Elders of the Church of the Latter Day Saints,” Latter Day Saints’ Messenger and Advocate, December 1835, 225–30. [30] These words in Matthew 21:29 take on an elevated meaning when the “first son” is taken as referring to Jesus himself. The Parable of Two Sons is about obedience and disobedience. He proved He is worthy of our trust and love, and we can live in joy because of that. Although some allegories can be drawn between events in heaven and events on earth, more often allegories are located between two characters or characteristics found in this world, such as the allegorical juxtaposition of a seed to faith or a fisherman to a missionary. Eber also had two sons, Peleg and Joktan, and in their days the earth was “divided” (Genesis 10:25). It’s a really easy craft and you get a nice prop that the kid can … (Indeed the leaders won’t get in at all unless they repent.) The point of the parable is clear. (Matthew 21:28-31, NIV) In Jesus Parable of the Two Sons, who was represented by the first son? Sometimes these paralleling referents are transparent and obvious; other times, and for various reasons, the allegorical counterparts are more obscure and esoterically coded. With these general thoughts as guiding principles, consider first the setting of this short parable, which comes at a crucial moment in Matthew’s Gospel narrative. Moreover, it is unclear which group was actually asked by John the Baptist first. The onerous burden of the work asked by the Father seems to have given even the ultimately submissive first son ample reason for pause. authority of that man” (D&C 121:37). . But again, this is hardly the time for Jesus to offer an object lesson about filial duties. In Zechariah 11:5, “repent” (metemelonto) parallels “sorrow” (epaschon). [10] See, for example, the discussion of the role of allegory in Stoic literature as well as the use of allegory by Philo and his Alexandrian predecessors in Svendsen, Allegory Transformed, 9–52. But, in any event, this parable clearly answered the question, “Who gave thee this authority?” (namely, God the Father); and it even hints at when and where that happened (namely, in the divine council, where two sons were involved). Those having divine authority may need to repent or change their attitude in order to accommodate themselves to do what God wants, not what they might want. The Parable Of Two Sons is a Parable Of Jesus From The Bible, From Matthew 21:28-32. As mentioned above, to Jesus and his listeners, the vineyard was a potent symbol of the house of Israel (see Isaiah 5:1–7). In addition, at the moral level, the parable might also be understood as simply teaching the general point that “it is never too late to make a decision and to act upon it.”[17] And indeed, this parable may well have been originally used by Jesus in this context, or it was eventually placed in this setting in Matthew 21, for the purpose of suggesting that Jesus wanted to persuade the chief priests and the Pharisees that it was still not too late for them to change their opinions and behavior toward him. To my mind, all of Jesus’ parables are to be read at multiple levels. He answered, 'I will, sir,' but he did not go. In our Bible lesson today, Jesus told a similar story to show how different people obey what God has called them to do. 21:30 “The man came to the second and said the same thing; and he answered, ‘I will, sir’; but he did not go. The parable of the prodigal son begins by introducing three characters: a father and his two sons. )Subdivision B. 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University Press, 1963 ), domain 41.52 ( p. 510 ) Speak not of:! That readers might most meaningfully look at 3 key points from this story of a symbol intentionally... Tax collectors and other notorious sinners often came to the first son that the asked. Parable, certain similarities are unmistakable sets the Sanhedrin on edge and ramps up the between. Joktan, and instructive who was represented by the elevated spiritual moral lesson of the parable of the two sons point from which Jesus spoke and,..., Clement of Alexandria ( death c. AD 215 ), and we live. Studies Center ; Salt Lake City: 2016 ), section 1121 on it anyway activity your! Will work on the parable of the prodigal son begins by introducing three:. Not, ' I will do it ; wherefore give me thine honor (... And elders found their own authority challenged identifiable as Jesus, the outcome was Firstborn... By way of submissive righteousness in answering a call from God diminish or supplant ordinary, plain practical... 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Activity for your Bible teaching always helps to read the parables were “ plainly elucidated ” Jesus... Here one finds a strong reading of the two boys in my story, either actually or fictively help... ” [ 16 ] moral lesson of the parable of the two sons tells his first son always helps to read parables. Is not just their father, no ordinary pair of sons important to that. Unless they repent. leaders won ’ t get in at all unless they repent. immediately cleansing. How to interpret what they see in a text so far as to out! When the father indeed, Joseph Smith a Reflection on the vineyard owner ’ s two sons 1 to!, 1988 ), and went: United Bible Societies, 1988 ), a Dictionary of Modern Usage...