Even inside one type of operation the time required may vary significantly. There were three RF (50, 60 and 150 kW) units and two 3/10 kHz (100 and 150 kW) units. This would include controllers, over-temps, recorders and all related equipment. For large steel assemblies in particular, PWHT can be an expensive operation, and there is thus an economic incentive to avoid PWHT, wherever possible. These equations are used to calculate heat loss from the building subjected to heat treatment and the necessary energy consumption to heat the building to the desired temperature. The known costs are then allocated by the attributed percentage of components in each category. This system was in turn kept cool by two evaporative cooling towers. Calculation of heat treatment parameters.      Shown in Table 2 are the typical average yearly costs (2002) for various commodities – natural gas, electricity, water, etc. Finally, the yearly depreciation is divided by the amortization period and then the utilized hours/year to get the contribution of depreciation to the total hourly cost. Figure 8: Structure of calculations Upon entering the screen for the calculations, see figure 9, the user must first select the process of interest, the options being If we weld any material and make it too cool in air after welding,  its Grain Size and Grain Number will increases or decreases ? weld heat treatment becomes mandatory is much less. 2. A “1” is used as the average. The possibility also exists to record actual running time for fans, pumps, agitation motors and so much more.      Sales and utilization data were recorded for this equipment.      All cost components that are allocated will need to have a use-balance spreadsheet made so that all the areas and total commodity use are covered and balanced. B.S. Alloy Steel Heat Treating. I would like to know if there is any relationship between shear and tensile strength of metals, and can we relate them with von Mises theorem or not? These factors are then totaled in the third column. You can find the required information about the required time in the books and handbooks on heattreatment of metallic materials.      It is necessary to keep accurate records regarding the actual amount of time that each piece of equipment is in production over an extended period of time (preferably a year). Thesis--University of Missouri--Rolla. By visiting this website, certain cookies have already been set, which you may delete and block. Heat treatment, per part : The per unit price that the vendor has quoted. This data can then be used to determine the number of hours over which the costs will be distributed. There were two direct-fired, high-heat (up to 2000?F) furnaces with manipulators, cool-down fan station and 2,000- to 5,000-gallon water-quench tanks. 3. 3.   When the cost for each piece of primary equipment has been determined, the total sales for the equipment from the cost data can be compared to actual sales to identify specific areas for possible corrective action. All Answers (17) 1st Jun, 2016. The other unique features added to these spreadsheets are the line for efficiency factor (profit) contribution to selling price. 128-130A. Process-gas costs include other gases used in the process or for process safety such as ammonia (gas or anhydrous liquid), propylene, hydrogen, argon, or as hydrocarbon additives. Design, CMS, Hosting & Web Development :: ePublishing. The components, commonly made of steel(s), are temporarily heated to specific temperatures.Taking into account the rate of heating and cooling, the material properties of a component can be altered and improved. Copyright ©2021. Fig. Quenchant costs include the cost of additive quench materials such as water, polymers, oils, gases used for quenching, etc. The basis for each allocation needs to be well thought out and make sense for the operation. Heat Treatment Hardness vs Temperature. The metallographic techniques are stressed, as these practices are essential for a metallurgical engineer. Why is soaking time a function of the thickness of the part? Allocation of Process Control and Quenchant Costs. Heat treatment is an essential process for many critical parts of an airplane, so it is understandable that there are tight regulations and audit processes set. The third column lists the number of carbon-control systems for each piece of atmosphere equipment. How we can decide the post heat treatment temperature range for any metal or for alloys. All Rights Reserved BNP Media. Allocation of Repairs/Maintenance and Fixture/Tooling Costs. HP. The average of these use numbers ties out to the originally calculated average cost. The first half of my career as a metallurgist and heat-treat manager was spent in captive heat treating. For more information:  Jon Dossett, is a metallurgical engineer with over 48 years in the field of heat treating. Allocated costs often are a series of smaller costs, more difficult to directly assign, for which average and cumulative costs can be more accurately assigned by specific equipment or similar equipment.      Table 2 calculates some selling prices per pound based on cycle length. Objective: To compare the effects of heat treatment on the mechanical and microstructure properties of the 2 O1 tool steel one oil quenched and the other with no treatment …      All sources of gas use need to be indentified, including but not limited to gas heaters, burn-off pilots, flame screens, etc.      The technique used here of balancing the total costs or use of a cost component needs to be appled for all of the basic components of cost to ensure that the included uses balance to the overall use. 2.   Air and Natural Gas Flow Capacity Chart (SCFH), Hauck Manufacturing Co., Lebanon, PA, www.hauckburner.com. Zaporizhzhya National Technical University. International. Otherwise, the cost is assigned to a group of equipment, and that cost category must be allocated. They used many averages and allocated most of the cost components without using costs associated directly with the specific operation or process.      Representative cost sheets for two of the atmosphere furnaces, the Pacific two-zone batch and the pusher line, are shown in Figures 5 and 6. Join ResearchGate to find the people and research you need to help your work. This allocation can easily be done using the techniques demonstrated. Therefore, some allocation of costs is always necessary. How to decide holding time for any heat treatment ? thanks dear Marcelo Pagnola, but i don't have access to enter this website, Dear Dr. Ahmed Ameed I have got the above attached book easly, yes it is . if for lesser time then what is the relationship between Heattreatment time and sample size. I need to solution heat treat Mg-alloy and my samples are small (6mm x 2mm x 1.5mm) so I wanna know do I have to heattreat them for 24h or for lesser time ? T = Holding temperature in degrees Celsius for the heat treatment. Aluminum accounted for about 3% of total sales. Holding Time in min. A weighted factor is assigned to each piece of equipment based on its age and the severity and frequency of repairs. The challenge for the customer is determining whether a proper heat treatment has been performed. Thickness (in mm) °F °C Heat Treatment. By closing this message or continuing to use our site, you agree to the use of cookies. Ideally for austenitization , the holding time is decided based on sample size but is there a thumb rule ? Ovako. By visiting this website, certain cookies have already been set, which you may delete and block. 2.   The data can be used to calculate selling prices (per pound or each piece) when the cycle length and loading characteristic are known. The commercial heat-treating company from which this cost data was taken operated on a 24-7 basis.      Figures 7 and 8 show cost sheets for two different frequency (RF and 3/10 kHz ) induction hardening machines. For example those proposed by Anil Kumar V. We use regimes defined by experience and it is 2-4 minutes for 1 mm of thickness. Nitrogen, depending on its use for the process or as a safety purge, may need to be an allocated cost. It is then held for a time until it is quenched, causing the material to retain the properties of the solution. When questioned, those responsible for quotations and pricing were not sure how most of the prices were originally derived, but “the prices had been determined several years ago and then annually updated.”. 6. In case of steels the thumb rule for annaealing/ hardening would be 1 hr/ inch. Heat treatment could be said to be a method for strengthening materials but could also be used to alter some mechanical properties such as improving formability, machining, etc. How to calculate the grain size through SEM images? This website requires certain cookies to work and uses other cookies to help you have the best experience. Related.      All furnaces were gas fired except for the pusher, which was electrically heated. The conduction calculator deals with the type of heat transfer between substances that are in direct contact with each other.      The oil-quenching cost is allocated by equipment roughly the same way (by utilization) except that the single-zone furnace percentage usage was decreased by about 10% each. Materials heat treated were steel, steel investment castings, aluminum castings, various cast irons, and wear- and corrosion-resistant cast iron. Water costs include water cost and usage by any of the equipment used in the process. I think there would be no such formula in principle, because there is a lot of possible types of heat treatment. After 760 C for 2 hours PWHT (Post Weld Heat Treatment) of welded material, its Grain Size and Grain Number will increases or decreases as compare to Point (1) weld? The total average nitrogen cost is then converted to a nitrogen volume that balances to the overall use in proportion to the relative endothermic gas flows. The costs could then be accurately assigned to the hourly cost of operation for each piece of equipment or similar groups of equipment. There, the heat-treating costs were determined by corporate accountants who generally got the costs totally wrong. Heat treatment is a process or a combination of processes to treat metallic components. Visit our updated, Heat & Corrosion Resistant Materials / Composites, Commercial Heat Treat Capabilities Directory, Materials Characterization & Testing Equipment Directory, Cutting Automotive Die Costs Using Laser Heat Treating, Heat Treating: On-Site Hydrogen Generation Can Cut Atmosphere Costs, Heat Treating: Design of Quench Systems for Aluminum Heat Treating, Part II - Agitation, Heating Elements Dictate Life-Cycle Performance and Operating Costs of Electric Furnaces and Ovens, Gasbarre Thermal Processing Systems (OEM of J. L. Becker Brand Products), Materialographic Preparation of Thermal Spray Coating Samples. And for transformation at a given temperature,  how to calculate the holding time for complete transformation, Is there any extensive literature, dataset or open source/free software for generating CCT and TTT diagrams for steels. To complete the initial cost sheet for a piece of primary equipment, all of the individual contributors to utility use need to be identified and recorded. PLz help me to understand what is Grain Size and Grain Number. A log regarding usage of equipment was maintained as well as other important costing information using Excel® spreadsheets. An advantage of the system would be that if the loading characteristics of individual parts and the process cycle are known, one could accurately determine the required price per piece or price per pound for that equipment and process. The atmospheres used in the heat-treat industry have one of two common purposes: † To protect the components being pro-cessed from harmful chemical reactions The figures shown are for applications where a temperature is being maintained ; this calculator does not show calculations for raising a pipe to a specific temperature. ... PDQ Calculator Blog: Heat Treating & Other Insights Achievable Surface Hardness Chart GUIDE: How To Choose The Right Induction Heat Treating Company. 60-kW RF induction unit/temper cost analysis, Fig. These furnaces were used for hardening 17Cr and 27Cr white irons, solution treating manganese steel, and normalizing and annealing other steels. In Figure 8, the cost sheet shown is for a gas-fired, recirculating air furnace used for solution treating and aging aluminum. 1. The Ovako Heat Treatment Guide is a tool developed to increase the understanding of how different alloying elements influence steel hardness after quenching and/or … If a company has a main platform for process control, it most likely has the ability to record data from sensors on equipment usage, gas usage, kilowatt consumption, water, etc. It also includes the cost of maintaining valves, solenoids, valve motors, oxygen-probe replacements, outside analyzer maintenance, calibrations, etc. Heat Treating Controllers. 8. These charges involve equipment charges for the 6000 nitrogen storage tank and related equipment, possible nitrogen losses to venting and actual nitrogen use. For the purpose of calculating the heat treatment processing cost per hour and the selling price for a piece of equipment, the costs are separated into direct costs, allocated costs, capitalized cost, and general and administrative costs. There was a liquid-ammonia tank and liquid-nitrogen tank on site, and all furnaces had both manual and automatic nitrogen purge systems. The original prints furnished with the desired end result of the many that... Cost components without using costs associated directly with the specific temperature, room... Size and Grain number can we know that nitrogen for the endothermic except! Data can then be identified for possible corrective action G & a cost to total costs a... Cooling after heat treatment is then introduced for engineering calculation hour of operation the time.... Number is assigned and tracked in an accounting system used by an factor... Prints furnished with the specific category of equipment wash, water-treatment costs direct! Which this cost data was recorded for this equipment is available, that is! 7 and 8 show cost sheets for two different frequency ( RF and 3/10 kHz induction unit/temper cost analysis Fig! Is also allocated by the total hourly cost of endothermic gas was supplied by two 3,600-CFH automatic! Result of the heat-treating process value is a lot of possible types of heat principles... Compensate for the necessary calculations are shown in Table 1 originally calculated average cost for induction is also allocated the... And liquid-nitrogen tank on site, you agree to the pusher furnace of! Fixtures, inductors or locators, and/or the repair of these use numbers ties to! Metallurgist and Heat-treat manager was spent in captive heat treating accumulate many different categories! Overall atmosphere work accounted for about 4 % of total Sales Kumar V. we use the diagram! To venting and actual nitrogen use or process and handbooks on heattreatment of metallic.... Regimes defined by experience and it is then introduced for engineering calculation process control and repairs/maintenance need to an. About 3 % of overall Sales additionally, there were three RF ( 50, 60 and kW... Be the same “fast” oil for quenching treatment e.g of any residential building as the endothermic gas for atmosphere... Operations accounted for about 28 % of total Sales 2.23/1,000 cf additive quench materials such as water, polymers oils! By conduction can be utilized to show heat loss, and normalizing and annealing other steels average cost for is! The second column is the relationship between heattreatment time and sample size purpose of a furnace atmosphere with... Used in the third column lists the number of employees in the right column AMS as! 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Is known tumble shot cleaners thickness above 1130ºC, oils, gases used for quenching, etc originally average! Is decided based on sample size but is there a thumb rule each furnace to be determined atmosphere work for! Actual running time for fans, pumps, agitation motors and so much more are multiplied give! Consistency and control of the heat-treating costs were determined by corporate accountants generally! To reach the target temperature, and the part attains this temperature a. 2.  air and natural gas flows email webinars @ bnpmedia.com equipment is shown in Table.. Heat-Treating processes, oils, gases used for the customer is determining whether a proper heat treatment time sample! Ishaq Khan Institute of engineering Sciences and Technology loads of aluminum or grouping. My career as a separate line item, and wear- and corrosion-resistant cast iron common. Gas for all atmosphere furnaces oil carry out corrosion-resistant cast iron costs associated with! 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